There are still some Hellenic polytheists who honor Eros in their worship today. In addition, he was closely associated with many of the cults of Aphrodite across the Greek world. (Parmenides, fragment 13.) The Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries featured Eros as a very original god, but not quite primordial, since he was the child of Night (Nyx). In early mythology, Eros was shown as a man, but as time went on, the Greeks showed him being younger and younger until he was a chubby baby! Together, they are often referred to as the Erotes. Appropriate offerings to Eros include fruits like the apple or grapes, or flowers that are representative of love, such as roses. However, Parmenides (c. 400 BC), one of the pre-Socratic philosophers, makes Eros the first of all the gods to come into existence.[13]. The god flees, feeling both betrayed and enraged. [12], Homer does not mention Eros. For the philosophical and psychological use of the word, see. He is typically shown blindfolded—because, after all, love is blind—and carrying a bow, with which he shot arrows at his intended targets. She pushed the boy away. There does seem to be some question about Eros' parentage. For once, Eros was the one head over heels in love! The boy is in love, but has no idea what he loves. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) Eros, in Greek religion, god of love. It is as if he had caught an eye disease from someone else, but could not identify the cause; he does not realize that he is seeing himself in the lover as in a mirror. (Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. [10][11], According to Hesiod's Theogony (c. 700 BC), one of the most ancient of all Greek sources, Eros (the god of love) was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos, Gaia (the Earth), and Tartarus (the abyss). In the end, after performing a series of all but impossible tasks imposed on her by Aphrodite, she wins back both the goddess’ and Eros’ trust. See Also: Eros and Psyche, Psyche, Aphrodite, Anteros. Ἔρως [10][11], According to Hesiod's Theogony (c. 700 BC), one of the most ancient of all Greek sources, Eros (the god of love) was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos, Gaia (the Earth), and Tartarus (the abyss). He was fervently worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae, and played an important role in the Eleusinian Mysteries. He was also sometimes regarded as the child of Aphrodite, with Ares, the god of war, as his father, and his brothers were Deimos (Fear), Phobos (Panic), and Harmonia (Harmony). The novel itself is written in a picaresque Roman style, yet Psyche retains her Greek name. V Pirozzi / De Agostini Picture Library / Getty. He was the fourth child of Chaos. Psyche, a beautiful maiden, personifies the … When in a group, these are often given the individual names of Eros, Himeros (Desire), and Pothos (Yearning or Longing). Some stories say Eros is the child of Iris and Zephyrus, and early sources, such as Aristophanes, say he is the offspring of Nyx and Erebus, or Chaos itself, which would make him quite an old god indeed. (Seneca, Phaedra 290 ff. Eros flew down to earth to accomplish the mission, but instead of shooting Psyche, he accidentally pricked himself with his arrows. The myth of Eros and Psyche is probably one of the best love stories in classical mythology. Variously depicted as either a beautiful youth or a mischievous nude boy, Eros is most commonly represented with a bow and an unlimited number of arrows which he uses to overpower the reason and incite erotic feelings in any mortal or god per Aphrodite’s or his own wish. [5] Aristophanes (c. 400 BC), influenced by Orphism, relates the birth of Eros: In later myths, he was the son of the deities Aphrodite and Ares: it is the Eros of these later myths who is one of the erotes. Together they had a daughter, Voluptas or Hedone (meaning physical pleasure, bliss). [9], The Thespians celebrated the Erotidia (Ancient Greek: Ἐρωτίδεια) meaning festivals of Eros. On Greek pottery Eros usually appears at weddings and other romantic scenes, often hovering above the main protagonists such as Paris and Helen of Troy. Ares and Aphrodite or just Chaos or Erebus and Nyx The first are the more famous love-kindling ones; these were sharp and gold-tipped. He was also depicted accompanied by dolphins, flutes, roosters, roses, and torches. After the arrival of the Argonauts in Kolkhis (Colchis), the goddess Hera conspires to have Medea fall in love with Jason to assist the hero in his quest for the Golden Fleece. (Seneca, Phaedra 290 ff. :\"[Hera addresses Athene (Athena) :] ‘We must have a word with Aphrodite. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Related Content However, Parmenides (c. 400 BC), one of the pre-Socratic philosophers, makes Eros the first of all the gods to come into existence.[13]. To this end she petitions Aphrodite have her son Eros strike the princess with his darts. For the philosophical and psychological use of the word, see. It is possible that Eros did not appear as an autonomous deity of fecundity and reproduction, but instead as the fertility aspect of Aphrodite's worship. In Greek art, Eros was portrayed either as a beautiful youth (in the earlier days) or as a mischievous boy (in Hellenic times and later). [7], Eros was one of the Erotes, along with other figures such as Himeros and Pothos, who are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males. In Athens, he shared a very popular cult with Aphrodite, and the fourth day of every month was sacred to him. Eros – known as Cupid to the Romans – was the Greek god of sexual attraction, a constant companion of Aphrodite. [10][11], The Lacedaemonians offered sacrifices to Eros before they go to battle, thinking that safety and victory depend on the friendship of those who stand side by side in the battle.